Participles

Participles are formed from verbs and are used to create tenses and as adjectives.

There are two types of participles:
past participles
present participles

A perfect participle also exits, which is a combination of the other two.

FORMING THE
PRESENT PARTICIPLE

verb base +ing

be – being
draw – drawing
play – playing

Exceptions:

ending silent -e, drop -e, add +ing
drive – driving
come – coming
write – writing

ending -ie, change -ie to y, add +ing
lie – lying

ending –ic, add +k, then +ing
panic – panicking
frolic – frolicking

ending – l, double -l, then +ing
travel – travelling
grovel – grovelling

one syllable and last 3 letters are
consonant, stressed vowel, consonant: – double the last letter then +ing
stop – stopping
begin – beginning

more than one syllable and last 3 letters are consonant, stressed vowel, stressed consonant: – double the last letter then +ing
occur – occurring
refer – referring
begin – beginning

Uses:

to form the continuous (progressive) tenses
She was boiling water.

as adjectives
The boiling water scaled her.

as adjectives, they may from compound nouns
walking stick, wedding dress, racing horse.

FORMING THE
PAST PARTICIPLE

verb base +ed or +d

work – worked
talk – talked
verbs ending –e, add +d only
save – saved
move – moved

Exceptions:

verbs with a short vowel:
double the last consonant, then add +ed
hop – hopped
stop – stopped

ending –y, change –y to –i, add +ed
study – studied
marry – married
try – tried

There are many irregulars, including:
be been
begin begun
bring brought
come come
do done
draw drawn
eat eaten
give given
go gone
have had
know known
make made
read read
say said
see seen
sit sat
take taken
for a fuller list see here

Uses:

to form the perfect tenses
He had broken the lamp.

as adjectives
The broken lamp was in the bin.

PERFECT PARTICIPLE

present participle having + past participle

Used to express an action completed in the past.

Having eaten, he was no longer hungry.
Having apologised, she left quickly.

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